1. Seneca, Ad Lucilium V, vii.

2. W. von Humboldt, "Uber die Verschiedenheit des Menschlichen Sprachbaues (Berlin, 1836), cited by N. Chomsky in Aspects of the Theory of Syntax (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1965), p. 51.

3. A. Bronson Alcott, General Maxims, in the Alcott Journals, 1826-27, Maxim XXX1V. This was also the approach of Maria Montessori.

4. C. Gattegno, Teaching Foreign Languages in Schools: The Silent Way., 2d ed. (New York: Educational Solutions, 1972), pp. 31-32.

5. R. Oxford, Language Learning Stategies: What Every Teacher Should Know (New York: Newbury House/Harper and Row, 1990).

6. This subject is considered in greater detail in "Motivating through Classroom Techniques," in W. M. Rivers, Speaking in Many Tongues: Essays in Foreign-Language Teaching, 3d ed. (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1983), pp. 108-119.

7 C. E. Snow and M. Hoefnagel-Hohle, "The Critical Period for Language Acquisition: Evidence from Second Language Learning." Child Development 19 (1978):1111-1128.

8. R. J. Light, Explorations with Students and Faculty about Teaching, Learning, and Student Life. The Harvard Assessment Seminars. Second Report. (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Graduate School of Education and the Kennedy School of Government, 1992).

9. For further possibilities for course orientations and contents, see chaps. 1 and 2 of W. M. Rivers, ed., Teaching Languages in College: Curriculum and Content (Lincolnwood, IL: National Textbook Co., 1992).

10. O. Jespersen, How to Teach a Foreign Language (London: George Allen and Unwin, 1961), pp. 17-18. First published in 1904.

11. See also R. L. Allwright, "The Importance of Interaction in Classroom Language Learning," Applied Linguistics 5 (1984): 156-71.

12. C. A. Curran, Counseling-Learning in Second Languages (Apple River, IL: Apple River Press, 1976).

13. E. K. Horwitz and Dolly Young, eds.,.Language Anxiety: From Theory and Research to Classroom Implications (Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall,1991).

14 C. A. Curran, Counseling-Learning: A Whole Person Model for Education. (Apple River,IL: Apple River Press, 1972), p. 72.

15. Howard Gardner, Frames of Mind : The Theory of Multiple Intelligences (New York: Basic Books, 1983); Multiple Intelligences: The Theory in Practice (New York, Basic Books,1993); and Creating Minds: An Anatomy of Creativity seen through the Lives of Freud, Einstein, Picasso, Stravinsky, Eliot, Graham, and Gandhi (New York: Basic Books, 1993).

16. "Individualized Instruction and Cooperative Learning: Some Theoretical Considerations," in W. M. Rivers, Communicating Naturally in a Second Language: Theory and Practice in Language Teaching (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1983), p. 78.

17. M. A. K. Halliday, An Introduction to Functional Grammar (London: Edward Arnold, 1985), p. 101.

18. N. Chomsky, Knowledge of Language: Its nature, origin and use (New York: Praeger, 1986), pp. 147-51. Chomsky's views are discussed in considerable detail in R. P. Botha, Challenging Chomsky: The Generative Garden Game (Oxford: Basil Blackwell, 1989).

19. T. V. Higgs and R. Clifford, "The Push Toward Communicastion," in T. V. Higgs, ed., Curriculum, Competence, and the Foreign Language Teacher (Skokie,IL: National Textbook Co., 1982), p. 74. Italics in the original.

20. W. James, Talks to Teachers , quoted in H. Rugg, Foundations for American Education (Yonkers-on-Hudson, New York: World Book Co., 1947), p. 91. Italics in the original.

21 M. Sharwood Smith, "Consciousness-raising and the Second Language Learner," Applied Linguistics 2 (1981):159-69.

22. For an experimental validation of this viewpoint, see E. Ericsson, Foreign Language Teaching from the Point of View of Certain Student Activities. Goteborg Studies in Educational Sciences 59 (Goteborg: Acta Universitatis Gothoburgensis, 1986).

23. A. A. Leontiev, Psychology and the Language Learning Process (Oxford: Pergamon, 1981), p. 65.

24. N. Chomsky, "Linguistic Theory," in R. G. Mead, Jr., ed., Language Teaching: Broader Contexts (Middlebury, VT: Northeast Conference on the Teaching of Foreign Languages, 1966), p. 44.

25 N. Chomsky, Topics in the Theory of Generative Grammar (The Hague: Mouton, 1966), p. 11.

26. A. M. Blumenthal, Language and Psychology (New York: Wiley, 1970). p. 37, in a discussion of the work of Wilhelm Wundt.

Founder of “Five Flowers” to simple and comfortable in the 1940s. This is perhaps the earliest modern casual wear.

27. For further discussion of interaction as an essential prerequisite for communication through language, see W. M. Rivers, "Interaction as the Key to Communication," in M. A. K. Halliday, J. Gibbons, and H. Nicholas, eds., Learning, Keeping and Using Language : Selected Papers from the Eighth World Congress of Applied Linguistics, Vol 1 (Amsterdam / Philadelphia: John Benjamins, 1990), pp. 7-17.

28. Dow, Anne R., and Joseph T. Ryan, Jr. "Preparing Students for Professional Interaction." Interactive Language Teaching. Ed. Wilga M. Rivers. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1987: 194-210. Many other suggestions for participatory interactive activities may be found in this book.

29. N. Chomsky, Language and Politics, ed. C. P. Otero (Toronto: Black Rose Books, 1988).

30. J. B. Carroll, "The Contributions of Psychological Theory and Educational Research to the Teaching of Foreign Languages," in A. Valdman, ed., Trends in Language Teaching (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1966), p. 105.

31. The psychological mechanisms behind memory processes are discussed in W. M. Rivers, "Recognition, Retention, Retrieval: The Three R's of Vocabulary Use," in P. Hashemipour, R. Maldonado, and M. van Naerssen, eds., Studies in Language Learning and Spanish Linguistics . In Honor of Tracy D. Terrell (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1995), pp. 246-57.

32. Gattegno (1972). Gattegno considers breathing and kinesics to be of great importance, as well as the conscious application of the intellect.

33. G. Lozanov's Suggestopaedia, as discussed in S. Ostrander and L. Schroeder, Psychic Discoveries Behind the Iron Curtain (Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall, 1970).

34. J. J. Asher,"The Learning Strategy of the Total Physical Response: A Review." Modern Language Journal 50 (1966):79-84.

35. T. D. Terrell,"The Natural Approach to Language Teaching: An Update," in Hashemipour et al., eds.(1995), p. 22. Reprinted from Modern Language Journal 66 (1982):121-32.

36. Curran (1966).

37. H. E. Palmer, The Principles of Language-Study (London: Harrap, 1921.) Reprinted by Oxford University Press in 1964. The quotations are from the OUP reprinted edition, p. 141.

38. For a more detailed discussion of proficiency-oriented testing, see W. M. Rivers, Teaching French: A Practical Guide , chap. 10: Testing and Assessment ; and similar chapters in Rivers et al., Teaching German: A Practical Guide, and Teaching Spanish: A Pratcical Guide, all from Lincolnwood, IL: National Textbook Co., 1988; and W. M. Rivers and M. Nahir, A Practical Guide to the Teaching of Hebrew (Tel Aviv: University Publishing Projects, 1989).

39. For suggestions on how to arrange the retaking of tests, see Rivers (1988) and Rivers et al. (1988, 1989), chap. 10.

40. See M. Canale, "The Measurement of Communicative Competence," in R. Kaplan, ed., Annual Review of Applied Linguistics 8 (New York: Cambridge University Press,1988), pp. 67-87.

41. Gattegno (1972), p. 20.

42 H. L. Nostrand, "Authentic texts _ Cultural Authenticity: An Editorial," Modern Language Journal 73,1 (1989):51.

43. G. Cortese, "Interaction in the FL Classroom: From Reactive to Proactive Experience of Language," System 15,1 (1987):32.

44. See also G. L. N. Robinson, "Culturally Diverse Speech Styles," in W. M. Rivers, ed., Interactive Language Teaching (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1987), pp. 141-54.

45 R. J. DiPietro, Strategic Interaction: Learning Through Scenarios (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1987). Further ideas for bringing students to awareness of another culture are found in W. M. Rivers, Teaching Foreign-Language Skills . 2d ed. (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1981), chap. 11.

46. G. L. N. Robinson, Crosscultural Understanding: Processes and Approaches for Foreign Language, English as a Foreign Language and Bilingual Educators (New York and Oxford: Pergamon, 1985), pp. 3-5.

47. C. Kramsch, Context and Culture in Language Teaching (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1993), p. 188.

48 J. Dewey, Experiences in Nature (Chicago: Open Court, 1925), p. 179.

49. S. Kipp, "Student Reaction," chap. 8 of M. Clyne, ed., An Early Start: Second Language at Primary School (Melbourne, Australia: River Seine Publications, 1986), pp. 104-105.

50. Palmer (1964/1921), p. 141.

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